The concept of Economic Order Quantity or EOQ emerged from this behavior of carrying and ordering costs. Companies can also adapt the EOQ formula and model it according to the specifics of their business and industry. Rakesh Patel, author of two defining books on reverse geotagging, is a trusted authority in routing and logistics. His innovative solutions at Upper Route Planner have simplified logistics for businesses across the board. A thought leader in the field, Rakesh’s insights are shaping the future of modern-day logistics, making him your go-to expert for all things route optimization.

  1. Though as previously stated, the formula does not account for variable cost or demand, leading you to recalculate EOQ.
  2. EOQ, or economic order quantity, is a valuable tool that can help businesses monitor their inventory levels without overloading on unnecessary costs.
  3. It prevents the need to spend more and the risk of running low on stocks while demand persists.
  4. With the overwhelming number of orders every single day, businesses that perform their own deliveries find it hard to save time or money during the process.
  5. If demand for your brand’s products fluctuates with the seasons, calculating your EOQ for each season can help you balance inventory all year round.
  6. EOQ is the most efficient model that tells you how to minimize inventory stockouts without holding unnecessary inventory for longer periods.

The EOQ formula determines the inventory reorder point of a company. When inventory falls to a certain level, the EOQ formula, if applied to business processes, triggers the need to place an order for more units. By determining a reorder point, the business avoids running out of inventory and can continue to fill customer orders. If the company runs out of inventory, there is a shortage cost, which is the revenue lost because the company has insufficient inventory to fill an order.

The renewal of the inventory becomes faster, efficient, and accurate. One of the biggest problems that affect the profitability of a business is balancing its inventory orders with the demand for the inventory in the marketplace. D, which is the annual demand, will equal the monthly demand multiplied by 12.

You might want to invest in setup funds as they might help you buy stock for a cheaper price in a turbulent market that is likely to shift. Article by Alecia Bland in collaboration with our team of inventory management and business specialists. When she’s not reading a book with her cat for company, you can usually find her cooking, eating or trying to make her garden productive. Under tabular approach of determining economic order quantity, the combined ordering and holding cost is computed at different number of orders and their respective order quantities. This approach is also known as trial-and-error approach of determining economic order quantity.


Safety stock is also often used during busy shopping seasons like the holidays or during a big promotion or flash sale. While economic order quantity can be a helpful metric to leverage in your inventory planning, it may not be the best choice for all brands. Here are a few reasons why EOQ may not be a reliable or valuable solution for your business. We believe everyone should be able to make financial decisions with confidence. There are times when the cost of estimation and calculation exceeds the savings made by buying that quantity.

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) FAQ

Critics have argued that the assumptions of constant demand and fixed cost levels are a limitation of the EOQ model. Seasonal changes in demand, for instance, are known to occur for many businesses, and costs can vary over time. Instead of manually checking inventory levels to reorder products, you can set automatic reorder points that automatically place an order once your inventory levels hit a certain threshold. Investing in an inventory management software or partnering with a 3PL) makes this easy to do.

What is Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)?

This is a highly risky move as it can severely affect your EOQ number, leading to you either overspending on stock or not having enough to meet demand. It is often the case where customer demand, either exceeds or plummets below the estimation and this is true for almost any business out there. This is why despite the best efforts from top companies, they still either overspend on total cost or fail to meet annual demand. The individual components of the Formula need to be understood before determining the Economic Order Quantity.

The firms can minimize their material acquisition costs by applying the EOQ model. Holding costs of inventory if often expressed as cost per unit multiplied by interest rate. The holding costs can be direct costs of financing the inventory purchase or the opportunity cost of not investing the money somewhere else.

EOQ may be arrived at by the tabular method by preparing purchase order tables showing the ordering cost. Even if you are not worried about supply chain management, it is still a good idea to have a limited annual quantity of stock. This is due to the fact that you will be paying less when it comes to carrying costs. With sufficient inventory levels, you can really make an impact on the inventory management process. The supply chain is notorious for getting cluttered quickly which is why it is best if a business can keep its inventory limited and organized. Notice that the quantity of 400 units with 6 annual orders and a combined ordering and holding cost of $120 is the most economical quantity to order.

Disadvantages of the EOQ model

Among the other great warehouse organization tips, having a limited amount of inventory can drastically reduce costs and efforts. According to Bloomberg, around $163 billion worth of inventory is trashed each and every year. Seeing such brutal wastage of inventory, it is no wonder why businesses are looking into the EOQ formula, as it can truly alleviate most of the cost issues with stock-keeping estimation. Your EOQ figure is therefore a useful guide in setting minimum and maximum stock levels in Unleashed. EOQ is a formula for calculating minimum purchase order requirements for a business, whereas MOQ is the minimum purchase order for the seller. Both EOQ and EPQ are a way of predicting inventory requirements to reduce costs and prevent stockouts.

Economic Order Quantity is one of the essential tools companies use in cash flow planning for minimizing the cost of inventory or decreasing the amount of cash held up in inventory. The Economic Order Quantity helps in estimating that level of inventory. The annual ordering costs are Rs 10 million while the quantity demanded is 100 million. As a business owner, you can easily order the correct quantities and reduce your ordering and carrying costs.

Other order quantities that result in more or less than six orders per year are not so economical. The economic order quantity is the level of quantity at which the combined ordering and holding cost is at the minimum level. Based on the provided information, we have calculated that you should order 1,581 units to keep your inventory costs their lowest. As inventory costs are optimized, you may consider changes in the product’s price policy.

Advantages  of the EOQ model

If we round that up, we see that James’ ideal order size to minimise his costs while meeting customer demand is 32 t-shirts. It’s an important figure for any business trying to minimise overspending while meeting demand, and especially for any business looking to reduce its overall inventory costs. There is an inverse relationship between ordering cost and holding cost. Keeping the annual demand constant if for example the number of orders decreases, the ordering cost will also decrease but the holding cost will rise and vice versa.

For example, consider a retail clothing shop that carries a line of men’s shirts. It costs the company $5 per year to hold a single shirt in inventory, and the fixed cost to place an order is $2. EOQ considers the timing of reordering, the cost incurred to place an order, and the costs to store merchandise. If a company revenue operations definition is constantly placing small orders to maintain a specific inventory level, the ordering costs are higher, along with the need for additional storage space. POS systems, such as QuickBooks Desktop Point of Sale, can use reorder points to automate purchase order forms for you, which makes it simple for you to use the EOQ.

Holding cost is the total costs a company incurs to hold inventory in a warehouse or store. The total holding costs depend on the size of the order placed for inventory. These costs occur while the company owns the inventory in a warehouse, storage, or store. The larger are the ordered product volumes; the higher are the holding costs.